(136993) 1998 ST49 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning


Background


(136993) 1998 ST49 was discovered by LINEAR in New Mexico on September 29, 1998. 
Its absolute magnitude of 17.6 and its Q-class taxonomy (Binzel et al., 2001, 2002)
suggest a diameter of ~0.9 km.   1998 ST49 is a rapid rotator with a period of 2.3 hours.
About 2/3 of such rapid rotators are binary systems (Pravec et al. 2006), so we are 
particularly interested in whether this object might have any companions.

1998 ST49 will encounter Earth at ~29 lunar distances on Oct. 1, 2012, when it will be a 
moderately strong radar target at Goldstone.  This is the closest encounter and thus the best 
oportunity to observe 1998 ST49 with radar in this century.  1998 ST49 will be a very
strong radar imaging target at Arecibo, where it may be possible to image it with 
a resolution of 0.1 usec.

Four tracks are scheduled at Goldstone between October 16-19 and six tracks are scheduled
at Arecibo between Oct. 15-20.  In addition, the Goldstone tracks overlap view periods for
2007 PA8, so we plan to devote a fraction of the time to that object in addition to 1998 ST49.
Many more tracks are scheduled to observe 2007 PA8 from
October 28-November 13.

1998 ST49 will be an excellent optical target in October when it will become brighter than 14th 
magnitude.   This will be an excellent opportunity for photometry to search for satellites 
and it should aid in efforts to estimate the pole direction.
Orbital and Physical Characteristics  
 orbit type               Apollo
 semimajor axis           2.309 AU     
 eccentricity             0.593 
 inclination              24.5 deg       
 perihelion distance      0.939 AU     
 aphelion distance        3.679 AU     
 absolute magnitude (H)   17.6
 diameter                 ~900 m                (assuming an optical albedo of 0.2)
 rotation period          2.3017 +/- 0.0005 h   (Galad, A. (2007), P. Pravec's website http://www.asu.cas.cz/~ppravec/neo.html)
 pole direction           unknown
 lightcurve amplitude     0.11                  (Galad, A. (2007), P. Pravec's website http://www.asu.cas.cz/~ppravec/neo.html)
 spectral class           Q                     (Binzel et al., 2001, 2002)

Last update: 2012 October 18

Discovery MPEC

M.P.E.C. 1998-T05                                Issued 1998 Oct. 2, 20:31 UT

     The Minor Planet Electronic Circulars contain information on unusual
         minor planets and routine data on comets.  They are published
   on behalf of Commission 20 of the International Astronomical Union by the
          Minor Planet Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory,
                          Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.

             BMARSDEN@CFA.HARVARD.EDU or GWILLIAMS@CFA.HARVARD.EDU
                   URL http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/mpc.html

                                   1998 ST49

Observations:
     J98S49T* C1998 09 29.43350 05 32 01.15 +20 55 43.0          17.7        704
     J98S49T  C1998 09 29.44594 05 32 08.03 +20 57 23.3          18.6        704
     J98S49T  C1998 09 29.47085 05 32 21.76 +21 00 40.9          17.9        704
     J98S49T  C1998 09 29.48317 05 32 28.74 +21 02 20.2          17.8        704
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.07424 05 38 10.59 +22 20 39.5                      557
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.07766 05 38 12.56 +22 21 07.1                      557
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.07837 05 38 12.97 +22 21 12.5                      557
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.07909 05 38 13.37 +22 21 18.4          16.2 V      557
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.10699 05 38 29.46 +22 25 02.8          16.4 V      046
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.10778 05 38 29.93 +22 25 09.3                      046
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.10905 05 38 30.66 +22 25 19.4                      046
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.10960 05 38 31.00 +22 25 23.9                      046
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.11014 05 38 31.32 +22 25 28.3                      046
     J98S49T  C1998 09 30.11070 05 38 31.65 +22 25 32.8                      046
     J98S49T  C1998 10 01.75362 05 55 19.00 +26 06 22.4          16.7 R      422
     J98S49T  C1998 10 01.75427 05 55 19.34 +26 06 26.6          16.9 R      422
     J98S49T  C1998 10 01.75488 05 55 19.81 +26 06 31.9          16.7 R      422
     J98S49T  C1998 10 01.75542 05 55 20.13 +26 06 36.1          16.8 R      422
     J98S49T  C1998 10 02.68744 06 05 31.39 +28 10 08.9                      411
     J98S49T  C1998 10 02.69043 06 05 33.47 +28 10 34.3                      411
     J98S49T  C1998 10 02.69944 06 05 39.43 +28 11 45.8                      411
     J98S49T  C1998 10 02.73497 06 06 02.43 +28 17 14.4          16.5 R      422
     J98S49T IC1998 10 02.73542 06 06 02.74 +28 17 18.0          16.3 R      422
     J98S49T  C1998 10 02.73613 06 06 03.21 +28 17 24.2          16.5 R      422
     J98S49T  C1998 10 02.73671 06 06 03.62 +28 17 28.8          16.9 R      422

Observer details:
046 Klet.  Observers M. Tichy, Z. Moravec.  Measurer M. Tichy.  0.57-m f/5.2
    reflector + CCD.
411 Oizumi.  Observer T. Kobayashi.  0.41-m f/4.3 reflector + CCD.
422 Loomberah.  Observer G. J. Garradd.  0.45-m f/5.4 reflector + CCD.
557 Ondrejov.  Observer L. Sarounova.  0.65-m f/3.6 reflector + CCD.
704 Lincoln Laboratory ETS, New Mexico.  Observers M. Blythe, F. Shelly,
    M. Bezpalko.  Measurers J. Stuart, H. Viggh, R. Sayer.  1.0-m f/2.15
    reflector + CCD.

Orbital elements:
1998 ST49
Epoch 1998 Sept. 24.0 TT = JDT 2451080.5                Williams
M 347.25894              (2000.0)            P               Q
n   0.28688387     Peri.   47.50443     +0.42443783     -0.89558578
a   2.2768371      Node    18.72618     +0.65997779     +0.20517729
e   0.5885107      Incl.   24.53944     +0.61990471     +0.39475105
P   3.44           H   18.0           G   0.15
From 25 observations 1998 Sept. 29-Oct. 2.

Ephemeris:
1998 ST49                a,e,i = 2.28, 0.59, 25                  q = 0.9369
Date    TT    R. A. (2000) Decl.     Delta      r     Elong.  Phase     V
1998 09 24    04 47.47   +09 47.1    0.247    1.107   108.6    59.2    17.3
1998 09 29    05 27.95   +19 58.7    0.222    1.074   103.2    65.2    17.2
.
.
1999 05 07    11 16.07   +11 25.5    1.491    2.170   119.2    23.9    21.7
1999 05 12    11 16.56   +10 19.0    1.579    2.205   115.0    24.5    21.8

Gareth V. Williams           (C) Copyright 1998 MPC           M.P.E.C. 1998-T05

SNR Calculation

Target Name:   1998 ST49

D =         0.9 km  (an educated guess)
Period =    2.3 h
OC albedo = 0.1     (a conservative lower bound)
    
                UT                              #                 max
 start date    window        RA, dec   dist    runs        SNR   SNR/run
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2012 Oct 14  01:25-09:44    349,  -3  0.083     196         34         3
2012 Oct 15  00:52-09:41    345,  +2  0.079     216         43         3
2012 Oct 16  00:17-09:36    341,  +8  0.076     236         52         4
2012 Oct 16  23:41-09:30    337, +13  0.074     255         59         4
2012 Oct 17  23:04-09:23    333, +19  0.074     270         62         4
2012 Oct 18  22:26-09:13    328, +25  0.074     280         61         4
2012 Oct 19  21:47-09:02    322, +30  0.076     286         57         4
2012 Oct 20  21:09-08:49    317, +35  0.079     287         50         3
2012 Oct 21  20:30-08:35    311, +39  0.082     284         42         3

Goldstone SNRs assume Ptx = 400 kW 

Track Assignments


Goldstone tracks:

             UT         UT          PDT                    Duration    Round-trip     
week DOY     Date       TX Window   TX Window                hh:mm     time (sec)     SNR/Run 
---- ---     ----       ---------   ---------              ---------    ---------     -------
42   290     Oct 16     0525-0935   2225-0235 Oct 15         04:10        75.9          4      Overlaps view period for 2007 PA8
42   291     Oct 17     0520-0830   2220-0130 Oct 16         03:10        74.1          4      Overlaps view period for 2007 PA8
42   292     Oct 18     0430-0920   2130-0220 Oct 17         04:50        73.5          4      Overlaps view period for 2007 PA8
42   293     Oct 19     0530-0910   2230-0210 Oct 18         03:40        74.2          4      Overlaps view period for 2007 PA8

NOTE: TXON is shown at the earliest time, which is only 15 min into the precal time.

The dates above also overlap time when another asteroid, 2007 PA8, will be observable at Goldstone,
so we hope to obtain radiation clearance to observe both objects on all four days.


Scheduled Arecibo tracks:

        UT          UT          AST                PST                Duration   RTT    SNR/
DOY     Date        TX Window   TX Window          TX Window          hh:mm      (sec)  Run 
---     ----        ---------   ---------          ---------          ---------  -----  ----
289     Oct 15      0114-0238   2114-2238 Oct 14   1814-1938 Oct 14    1:24       80     87      
290     Oct 16      0031-0242   2031-2242 Oct 15   1731-1942 Oct 15    2:11       77    120  
290-291 Oct 16-17   2358-0232   1958-2232 Oct 16   1658-1932 Oct 16    2:34       75    130
291-292 Oct 17-18   2331-0214   1931-2214 Oct 17   1631-1914 Oct 17    2:43       74    130
292-293 Oct 18-19   2309-0148   1909-2148 Oct 18   1609-1848 Oct 18    2:39       74    130
293-294 Oct 19-20   2254-0114   1854-2114 Oct 19   1554-1714 Oct 19    2:20       76     98



Uncertainties

From Jon Giorgini, 2012 Oct 12: 

Based on 247 optical measurements (1998-Sep-29 to 2012-Oct-9),
136993 (1998 ST49) orbit solution #44 was estimated. OSOD with
nominal predicts was established on aardvark in the /a136993 
sub-directory.

Formal 3-sigma X-band uncertainties for .s44:

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN  POS_3sigma   DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2012-Oct-15 00:00       1.623         3.57       0.000609
 2012-Oct-16 00:00       1.782         4.67       0.000577
 2012-Oct-17 00:00       1.943         5.83       0.000534
 2012-Oct-18 00:00       2.084         6.87       0.000482
 2012-Oct-19 00:00       2.186         7.62       0.000424
 2012-Oct-20 00:00       2.237         7.98       0.000366

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Apparent Magnitudes, Solar Elongations, Lunar Elongations, and Lunar Illumination:

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN   R.A._(J2000.0)_DEC. APmag delta                S-O-T /r  T-O-M/Illu%
 2012-Oct-01 00:00   14.84976 -31.22784  15.59 0.18572772179715  144.8559 /L   40.6/ 99.2
 2012-Oct-02 00:00   13.82261 -30.44811  15.45 0.17646280771281  145.5671 /L   45.5/ 96.6
 2012-Oct-03 00:00   12.69791 -29.55442  15.31 0.16732959353977  146.3150 /L   52.5/ 92.3
 2012-Oct-04 00:00   11.46530 -28.52840  15.16 0.15834387890013  147.0972 /L   61.0/ 86.5
 2012-Oct-05 00:00   10.11303 -27.34805  15.01 0.14952512721221  147.9072 /T   70.4/ 79.6
 2012-Oct-06 00:00    8.62776 -25.98712  14.85 0.14089738615685  148.7323 /T   80.6/ 71.5
 2012-Oct-07 00:00    6.99436 -24.41434  14.69 0.13249045675941  149.5500 /T   91.5/ 62.7
 2012-Oct-08 00:00    5.19577 -22.59271  14.52 0.12434136127920  150.3220 /T  102.9/ 53.4
 2012-Oct-09 00:00    3.21285 -20.47900  14.36 0.11649614740425  150.9878 /T  115.0/ 43.7
 2012-Oct-10 00:00    1.02429 -18.02378  14.19 0.10901202339483  151.4553 /T  127.7/ 34.0
 2012-Oct-11 00:00  358.60674 -15.17272  14.04 0.10195971651334  151.5930 /T  141.2/ 24.7
 2012-Oct-12 00:00  355.93508 -11.86984  13.89 0.09542574024851  151.2295 /T  155.2/ 16.1
 2012-Oct-13 00:00  352.98313  -8.06439  13.77 0.08951389207993  150.1690 /T  168.7/  8.9
 2012-Oct-14 00:00  349.72483  -3.72246  13.69 0.08434476701697  148.2294 /T  168.3/  3.5
 2012-Oct-15 00:00  346.13620   1.15599  13.64 0.08005149858576  145.2950 /T  153.3/  0.6
 2012-Oct-16 00:00  342.19815   6.51724  13.65 0.07676979628312  141.3613 /T  136.2/  0.4
 2012-Oct-17 00:00  337.90023  12.23798  13.70 0.07462148459921  136.5508 /T  118.9/  3.2
 2012-Oct-18 00:00  333.24527  18.12499  13.81 0.07369380781258  131.0952 /T  101.9/  8.8
 2012-Oct-19 00:00  328.25411  23.93867  13.96 0.07402076981456  125.2914 /T   86.3/ 16.8
 2012-Oct-20 00:00  322.96958  29.43727  14.15 0.07557444211155  119.4437 /T   72.9/ 26.6
 2012-Oct-21 00:00  317.45789  34.42373  14.37 0.07827058126582  113.8104 /T   62.9/ 37.4
 2012-Oct-22 00:00  311.80622  38.77541  14.61 0.08198583228705  108.5722 /T   57.2/ 48.7
 2012-Oct-23 00:00  306.11584  42.44835  14.86 0.08657890153580  103.8283 /T   56.1/ 59.6
 2012-Oct-24 00:00  300.49170  45.46225  15.11 0.09190857235970   99.6103 /T   59.0/ 69.9
 2012-Oct-25 00:00  295.03112  47.87779  15.34 0.09784527595122   95.9045 /T   64.4/ 79.0
 2012-Oct-26 00:00  289.81443  49.77557  15.57 0.10427647066354   92.6716 /T   71.0/ 86.7
 2012-Oct-27 00:00  284.89959  51.24054  15.79 0.11110769547618   89.8614 /T   78.0/ 92.7
 2012-Oct-28 00:00  280.32127  52.35259  15.99 0.11826123932054   87.4217 /T   84.8/ 97.0
 2012-Oct-29 00:00  276.09335  53.18182  16.18 0.12567381881330   85.3031 /T   91.0/ 99.4
 2012-Oct-30 00:00  272.21342  53.78705  16.35 0.13329407050157   83.4612 /T   96.2/100.0
 2012-Oct-31 00:00  268.66756  54.21622  16.52 0.14108024482053   81.8574 /T  100.3/ 98.7
 2012-Nov-01 00:00  265.43473  54.50754  16.66 0.14899824351879   80.4587 /T  103.2/ 95.7
 2012-Nov-02 00:00  262.49025  54.69115  16.80 0.15702001800082   79.2370 /T  104.8/ 91.1
 2012-Nov-03 00:00  259.80819  54.79054  16.93 0.16512229244823   78.1686 /T  105.0/ 85.1
 2012-Nov-04 00:00  257.36309  54.82401  17.05 0.17328555862206   77.2336 /T  104.1/ 77.8
 2012-Nov-05 00:00  255.13084  54.80571  17.15 0.18149328924590   76.4150 /T  102.0/ 69.5
 2012-Nov-06 00:00  253.08922  54.74664  17.25 0.18973132356623   75.6987 /T   99.1/ 60.3

Setups



Due to its rapid rotation and estimated size, we are expecting a bandwidth of about 30 Hz.
As such, and due to the rather modest SNRs we expect, we're going to start with a relatively
coarse frequency resolution with the goal of obtaining an echo quickly.

Initial CW setup:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TX polarization           RCP
RCV polarization          LCP & RCP
Frequency hops:           2
Dwell:                    30 seconds 
Bandwidth:                4000 Hz 
Sampling interval:        2500 x 0.1 usec
VME FFT for PSD files:    2048 for 1.95 Hz resolution 


Ranging setups:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-usec
baud             10 usec
code            127
PRP            1270 usec
FFT             128   
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       787 Hz   
resolution      6.15 Hz
TXOFF          +100Hz  (echo in bin 64+16=80)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-usec 
baud             11 usec
code            127
PRP            1397 usec
FFT             128  
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       716 Hz   
resolution      5.6 Hz
TXOFF          +100 Hz  (echo in bin 64+18=82) 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1-usec 
baud            1 usec
code            255
FFT             128
ncoh             6
bandwidth        654 Hz   
resolution       5.1 Hz
TXOFF           +80 Hz -> echo would be centered at 64 + 16 = 80
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.25-usec ranging 
baud            0.25 usec
code            255
FFT             128
ncoh             16
bandwidth       980  Hz     
resolution       7.7 Hz
TXOFF          +80 Hz -> echo would be centered at 64 + 10 = 74
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.125-usec ranging 
baud            0.125 usec
code            255
FFT             128
ncoh             32
bandwidth       980  Hz     
resolution       7.7 Hz
TXOFF          +80 Hz -> echo would be centered at 64 + 10 = 74
_____________________________________________________________________
POSSIBLE RANGING SETUPS: (code=127, FFT=64, single-pol'n) 
   These are from JX, w/ max-band (min-acc) options from Ray Jurgens.
   Currently configured for 5-sec records.
_______________________________________________________________________
 Setup        Baud        RP         1-acc 1-acc      
            usec   m      usec        band   res    acc  band     res 
_______________________________________________________________________
 
JX1XS110  11.000 1650    1397.0      715.8  11.2      2   358     5.6
JX1XS070   7.000 1050     889.0     1124.9  17.6      3   375     5.9
                                                      
JX1XS020   2.000  300     254.0     3937.0  61.5     12   328     5.1
                                                      4   984    15.4 

JX1XS010   1.000  150     127.0     7874.0 123.0     41   192     3.0 
                                                      8   984    15.4 

JX1XS005   0.500   75      63.5    15748.0 246.1    123   128     2.0 
                                                     15  1050    16.4 

JX1XS002   0.250   37.5    31.75   31496.1 492.1    492    64     1.0
                                                     30  1050    16.4 
 
JX1XS001   0.125   18.75   15.875  62992.1 984.3   1970    32     0.5 
                                                     60  1050    16.4 
____________________________________________________________________


Instructions

NOTE: Data should be moved to the appropriate subdirectories in aardvark:/export/data0/1998ST49/raw/

1998 ST49 POINTING:

  OSOD and predicts are on aardvark:

for WFG:
/export/data3/osod/ops/a136993/PRDX.OUT.14v-14-14.s50
                              /PUNCH.OUT.14v-14-14.s50
                              /EPH.OUT.s50


POINTING  
                                                          TX Offsets    
Date (UTC)   DOY  hhmmss    RA        Dec         Macro   LHA     Dec    RTT    OSOD
2012 10 19   293  040000    327.5183  24.9537        A                   74.0   s50    
2012 10 19   293  050000    327.2936  25.1876        A                   74.1     
2012 10 19   293  060000    327.0690  25.4201        A                   74.1     
2012 10 19   293  070000    326.8451  25.6512        A    4.60   4.70    74.2  
2012 10 19   293  080000    326.6223  25.8811        A                   74.3    
2012 10 19   293  090000    326.4009  26.1099        A                   74.3
2012 10 19   293  100000    326.1811  26.3378        A                   74.4     

Transmit offsets are given in millidegrees.  


PRDX.OUT.14f-14-14.50 TRANSMITTER: STATION #14, RECEIVER: STATION #14 RECEIVER U.T. RANGE DOPPLER LHA DEC RA EL 2012 OCT 19 04:00 74.0304612618 -115708.838 3.6306 24.9537 327.518 79.070 2012 OCT 19 04:10 74.0386319572 -117427.562 6.1748 24.9928 327.481 78.288 2012 OCT 19 04:20 74.0469229471 -119141.007 8.7191 25.0318 327.443 77.176 2012 OCT 19 04:30 74.0553338050 -120847.444 11.2634 25.0708 327.406 75.812 2012 OCT 19 04:40 74.0638639751 -122545.161 13.8077 25.1098 327.369 74.262 2012 OCT 19 04:50 74.0725127911 -124232.462 16.3521 25.1487 327.331 72.577 2012 OCT 19 05:00 74.0812794599 -125907.673 18.8964 25.1876 327.294 70.793 2012 OCT 19 05:10 74.0901630760 -127569.142 21.4407 25.2264 327.256 68.937 2012 OCT 19 05:20 74.0991626236 -129215.247 23.9849 25.2652 327.219 67.027 2012 OCT 19 05:30 74.1082769698 -130844.396 26.5292 25.3040 327.181 65.076 2012 OCT 19 05:40 74.1175048628 -132455.032 29.0735 25.3427 327.144 63.095 2012 OCT 19 05:50 74.1268449642 -134045.631 31.6178 25.3814 327.106 61.092 2012 OCT 19 06:00 74.1362958050 -135614.715 34.1620 25.4201 327.069 59.070 2012 OCT 19 06:10 74.1458558348 -137160.843 36.7062 25.4587 327.032 57.037 2012 OCT 19 06:20 74.1555233912 -138682.624 39.2504 25.4973 326.994 54.993 2012 OCT 19 06:30 74.1652967247 -140178.712 41.7946 25.5358 326.957 52.944 2012 OCT 19 06:40 74.1751739845 -141647.815 44.3387 25.5743 326.920 50.890 2012 OCT 19 06:50 74.1851532357 -143088.692 46.8829 25.6128 326.882 48.834 2012 OCT 19 07:00 74.1952324600 -144500.159 49.4270 25.6512 326.845 46.777 2012 OCT 19 07:10 74.2054095543 -145881.091 51.9710 25.6896 326.808 44.721 2012 OCT 19 07:20 74.2156823428 -147230.423 54.5151 25.7279 326.771 42.668 2012 OCT 19 07:30 74.2260485730 -148547.150 57.0591 25.7663 326.734 40.619 2012 OCT 19 07:40 74.2365059263 -149830.336 59.6030 25.8046 326.696 38.574 2012 OCT 19 07:50 74.2470520209 -151079.107 62.1469 25.8428 326.659 36.535 2012 OCT 19 08:00 74.2576844161 -152292.660 64.6908 25.8811 326.622 34.502 2012 OCT 19 08:10 74.2684006214 -153470.258 67.2347 25.9193 326.585 32.477 2012 OCT 19 08:20 74.2791980847 -154611.238 69.7785 25.9574 326.548 30.462 2012 OCT 19 08:30 74.2900742225 -155715.008 72.3223 25.9956 326.511 28.455 2012 OCT 19 08:40 74.3010264102 -156781.047 74.8660 26.0337 326.475 26.460 2012 OCT 19 08:50 74.3120519853 -157808.913 77.4097 26.0718 326.438 24.475 2012 OCT 19 09:00 74.3231482564 -158798.234 79.9533 26.1099 326.401 22.504 2012 OCT 19 09:10 74.3343125115 -159748.715 82.4969 26.1479 326.364 20.546 2012 OCT 19 09:20 74.3455420220 -160660.139 85.0404 26.1859 326.327 18.603 2012 OCT 19 09:30 74.3568340471 -161532.364 87.5839 26.2239 326.291 16.676 2012 OCT 19 09:40 74.3681858305 -162365.324 90.1274 26.2619 326.254 14.765 2012 OCT 19 09:50 74.3795946241 -163159.031 92.6708 26.2998 326.218 12.873 2012 OCT 19 10:00 74.3910576756 -163913.573 95.2142 26.3378 326.181 11.000

1998 ST49 GOLDSTONE MASTERLOG

============================================================================== Receive TX Setup hops dwell code ncoh FFT runs start -stop OSOD offset Poln Notes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Lance A. M. Benner | PHONE: (818) 354-7412 Mail Stop 183-601 | FAX: (818) 393-4445 Jet Propulsion Laboratory | email: lance.benner@jpl.nasa.gov California Institute of Technology | Plan: To live long and prosper Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/1998ST49/1998ST49_planning.html

Asteroid Radar Astronomy
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