2014 BW32 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning


Background


2014 BW32 was discovered by the Mt. Lemmon Survey (Arizona) on January 23, 2014.
It has an absolute magnitude of 26.2 suggesting a diameter within a factor of two
of 20 meters, but nothing else is known about its physical properties.

We have time scheduled on Feb. 3 and 5 to observe this asteroid.  On Feb. 3, the 
round-trip light travel time will vary from 5.2 - 5.0 seconds, so we expect 
to receive at DSS-13.  We will also conduct monostatic observations during
part of the track.   On Feb. 5, the round-trip time will be about 7 seconds, so the
observations will be monostatic.

2014 BW32 will approach within 0.0048 AU on February 3, so it's going to be a 
strong radar target and we hope to image it with 3.75 meter resolution.

Arecibo is offline due to damage experienced
during an earthquake on 2014 January 13, so Goldstone provides our only chance to
observe this asteroid with radar.

Orbital and Physical Characteristics  
 orbit type               Aten
 semimajor axis           0.816 AU
 eccentricity             0.292
 inclination              1.2 deg
 perihelion distance      0.578 AU
 aphelion distance        1.055 AU
 absolute magnitude (H)   26.2
 diameter                 20 m (+/- a factor of two)
 rotation period          unknown
 pole direction           unknown
 lightcurve amplitude     unknown
 spectral class           unknown

Future close approaches:

 Close-approach results:

          Date (CT)       Body   CA Dist  MinDist  MaxDist   Vrel  TCA3Sg  Nsigs  P_i/p
  ----------------------  -----  -------  -------  -------  ------ ------ ------ -------
  A.D. 2014 Feb 03.65047  Earth  .004782  .004775  .004789   7.138   1.09 1211.6 .000000
  A.D. 2014 Jun 13.97080  Venus  .063003  .061349  .064705   7.497 199.40 45011. .000000
  A.D. 2024 Aug 24.37571  Venus  .046839  .033268  .066377   8.276 3081.6 25088. .000000
  A.D. 2033 Nov 25.60668  Earth  .043186  .025510  .060661   8.480 655.99 10420. .000000
  A.D. 2036 Jan 01.43830  Venus  .060994  .048155  .074467  12.610 954.57 29504. .000000
  A.D. 2036 Dec 15.82934  Earth  .064742  .060895  .068702   5.894 4046.7 22896. .000000
  A.D. 2040 Jan 23.60854  Earth  .053204  .049935  .056533   5.951 1766.6 60166. .000000
  A.D. 2042 Jul 08.23736  Venus  .088998  .076979  .105828   7.075 8299.7 41639. .000000
  A.D. 2043 Feb 06.94826  Earth  .053101  .036025  .069245   8.897 117.49 8422.4 .000000
  A.D. 2050 Feb 19.84860  Venus  .043747  .031322  .074732   8.621 3524.9 36257. .000000
  A.D. 2056 Aug 14.32594  Venus  .059975  .026862  .098758  12.767 2914.1 21051. .000000
  A.D. 2062 Nov 25.51320  Earth  .074712  .055776  .092810   9.524 229.67 9124.6 .000000
  A.D. 2065 Dec 09.46384  Earth  .052707  .048437  .057198   5.964 2760.3 22329. .000000
  A.D. 2067 Dec 24.43076  Venus  .040393  .040309  .040477   8.839 285.48 11559. .000000
  A.D. 2069 Jan 21.75100  Earth  .054210  .051556  .056930   5.948 2130.0 10568. .000000
  A.D. 2072 Feb 07.08824  Earth  .076244  .059569  .092190   9.629 143.56 7924.2 .000000
  A.D. 2074 Jun 17.30944  Venus  .063178  .038869  .088493  12.933 1783.4 20998. .000000
  A.D. 2078 Mar 15.67251  Venus  .095183  .077801  .125664   7.180 15173. 44522. .000000
  A.D. 2089 Jul 10.03246  Venus  .057080  .034675  .084033  12.407 1856.3 29507. .000000
  A.D. 2091 Dec 06.53139  Earth  .043986  .033018  .056425   6.105 5957.8 15625. .000000
  A.D. 2095 Jan 21.31234  Earth  .056057  .055529  .056597   5.911 1396.1 25274. .000000
  A.D. 2096 Jan 01.53294  Venus  .025614  .024771  .027195   9.724 669.01 21881. .000000
  A.D. 2098 Feb 06.54319  Earth  .075855  .059464  .091542   9.609 380.87 4697.7 .000000
  A.D. 2107 May 10.71717  Venus  .035581  .030900  .157569   9.250 7110.5 33745. .000000
  A.D. 2113 Oct 30.17023  Venus  .098607  .026943  .257784  14.745 10017. 21042. .000000
  A.D. 2117 Jul 22.64320  Venus  .072290  .031890  .174972   7.193 49327. 30640. .000000
  A.D. 2117 Dec 09.47165  Earth  .050609  .017390  .200503   5.983 49696. 21218. .000000

  NOTE: post-epoch CA list was truncated due to Earth TCA3Sg exceeding the set limit.

The 2014 approach is the closest for at least the next century.

Last update: 2014 January 30

Discovery MPEC

M.P.E.C. 2014-B60                                Issued 2014 Jan. 28, 19:21 UT

     The Minor Planet Electronic Circulars contain information on unusual
         minor planets and routine data on comets.  They are published
   on behalf of Commission 20 of the International Astronomical Union by the
          Minor Planet Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory,
                          Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.

             Prepared using the Tamkin Foundation Computer Network

                              MPC@CFA.HARVARD.EDU
            URL http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/    ISSN 1523-6714

                                   2014 BW32

Observations:
     K14B32W* C2014 01 23.46266 11 06 14.89 +05 29 00.7          20.6 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.47072 11 06 14.08 +05 29 12.9          20.4 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.47877 11 06 13.28 +05 29 26.1          21.0 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.48682 11 06 12.48 +05 29 38.2          20.9 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.54374 11 06 07.14 +05 31 04.6          20.8 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.54458 11 06 07.05 +05 31 05.8          20.9 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.54543 11 06 06.96 +05 31 06.7          22.0 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 23.54627 11 06 06.91 +05 31 08.5          21.4 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 28.48487 10 58 51.19 +09 35 12.5          19.5 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 28.48992 10 58 49.72 +09 35 38.9          19.4 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 28.49496 10 58 48.27 +09 36 05.4          19.5 VqEB060G96
     K14B32W  C2014 01 28.50001 10 58 46.83 +09 36 32.0          19.3 VqEB060G96

Observer details:
G96 Mt. Lemmon Survey.  Observers J. A. Johnson, A. R. Gibbs.  Measurers
    A. Boattini, E. J. Christensen, A. R. Gibbs, A. D. Grauer, R. E. Hill,
    J. A. Johnson, R. A. Kowalski, S. M. Larson, F. C. Shelly, R. E. Hill
    MEA J. A. Johnson.  1.5-m reflector + CCD.

Orbital elements:
2014 BW32                                                Earth MOID = 0.0033 AU
Epoch 2013 Nov. 4.0 TT = JDT 2456600.5                  MPC
M 113.00779              (2000.0)            P               Q
n   1.33689710     Peri.  155.65977     +0.19384547     +0.98089426
a   0.8160888      Node   125.51352     -0.90335880     +0.18500912
e   0.2927787      Incl.    1.15752     -0.38257917     +0.06015039
P   0.74           H   26.0           G   0.15           U   9
Residuals in seconds of arc
140123 G96  0.1-  0.2-    140123 G96  0.2+  0.1+    140128 G96  0.2+  0.1+
140123 G96  0.0   0.4-    140123 G96  0.0   0.0     140128 G96  0.0   0.1-
140123 G96  0.1+  0.5+    140123 G96  0.3-  0.4-    140128 G96  0.1-  0.0
140123 G96  0.1+  0.3+    140123 G96  0.1+  0.2+    140128 G96  0.0   0.0

Ephemeris:
2014 BW32                a,e,i = 0.82, 0.29, 1                   q = 0.5772
Date    TT    R. A. (2000) Decl.     Delta      r     Elong.  Phase     V
2013 12 29    10 55 58.1 +03 48 42   0.1539  1.0541   113.4    58.9    24.2
...
2014 01 13    11 06 03.1 +03 32 33   0.09050 1.0396   126.3    49.7    22.7
...
2014 01 21    11 07 12.2 +04 39 36   0.05685 1.0248   134.6    43.1    21.5
...
2014 01 27    11 02 26.8 +07 49 31   0.03196 1.0104   143.0    35.9    20.0
2014 01 28    11 00 19.2 +08 56 53   0.02786 1.0077   144.9    34.2    19.7
2014 01 29    10 57 19.1 +10 27 57   0.02379 1.0050   147.1    32.2    19.3
...
2014 02 04    03 00 47.0 +58 16 02   0.0050140.9869   102.7    77.0    17.2
...
2014 02 12    23 30 42.9 +05 52 57   0.03465 0.9584    33.6   145.3    26.2
...
2014 02 27    23 15 41.4 +00 17 11   0.09971 0.8933    12.7   165.9    34.4

A. U. Tomatic                (C) Copyright 2014 MPC           M.P.E.C. 2014-B60

SNR Calculation

2014 BW32
D = 20 meters
P = 0.5 h       (an educated guess)
OC albedo = 0.1 (a relatively conservative lower bound)

SNRs for MONOSTATIC Goldstone Observations: 

w DOY    start date      window        RA, dec   dist    runs     SNR/day   SNR/run
5  30    2014 Jan 30     05:05-15:00   163, +14  0.018     999         36         1
5  31    2014 Jan 31     04:45-14:55   161, +18  0.014    1319         96         3
5  32    2014 Feb 01     04:15-14:55   157, +24  0.010    1893        330         8
5  33    2014 Feb 02     03:15-14:40   147, +37  0.007    3071       1600        32   
6  34    2014 Feb 03     00:45-12:40   115, +58  0.005    5307       7200       107 *  bistatic due to short RTT
6  34-35 2014 Feb 03-04  19:25-07:25    40, +57  0.005    5155       6800       103    bistatic due to short RTT
6  35-36 2014 Feb 04-05  17:45-05:05    11, +35  0.007    2970       1500        30    
6  36-37 2014 Feb 05-06  17:35-04:05     2, +23  0.011    1844        310         8 *  monostatic
6  37-38 2014 Feb 06-07  17:30-03:35   359, +16  0.014    1292         91         3 
6  38-39 2014 Feb 07-08  17:30-03:15   357, +13  0.018     982         34         1

For reception at DSS-13, divide by a factor of six.

Goldstone SNRs assume Ptx = 450 kW 

Arecibo SNRs

 start date    window       RA, dec   dist   runs      SNR/day   SNR/run
2014 Jan 28  02:12-11:44   165,  +9  0.027    166         60         5
2014 Jan 29  02:04-11:39   164, +11  0.023    205        120         9
2014 Jan 30  01:53-11:32   163, +13  0.019    264        268        17
2014 Jan 31  01:38-11:23   161, +17  0.015    353        700        39
2014 Feb 01  01:17-11:09   157, +23  0.011    491       2300       110
2014 Feb 02  00:38-10:35   149, +35  0.007    422       6700       360
2014 Feb 02  23:04-08:14   123, +55  0.005    NO SNR FOR ARECIBO: round-trip time is too short
2014 Feb 03  18:32-03:18    49, +60  0.005    NO SNR FOR ARECIBO: round-trip time is too short
2014 Feb 04  15:23-01:17    13, +38  0.007    120       3700       340
2014 Feb 05  14:39-00:32     3, +24  0.010    484       3100       150
2014 Feb 06  14:23-00:08   359, +17  0.014    381        910        49
2014 Feb 07  14:13-23:52   357, +13  0.018    278        330        21
2014 Feb 08  14:06-23:40   355, +10  0.022    212        140        10
2014 Feb 09  14:00-23:30   354,  +9  0.025    169         70         6


Track Assignments



The asteroid track on Feb. 3 comes immediately after a Europa/Ganymede track.

Goldstone tracks:

        UT         UT            PST                       Duration   Round-trip   SNR/  
DOY     Date       TX Window     TX Window                   hh:mm    time (sec)   Run 
---     ----       ---------     ---------                 ---------  ---------    ----
034     Feb 03     0250-0410     1850-2010 Feb 02             1:20      5.2-5.0    110  monostatic, or ~18/RTT bistatic
037     Feb 06     0200-0410     1800-2010 Feb 05             2:10     11            8  monostatic

On DOY 34, we can start transmitting before the end of precal but
we have to stop transmitting by 0410 due to RFI with a VLBI track at DSS-15.



Arecibo tracks:

...Arecibo is offline due to damage sustained during an earthquake on January 13...



Uncertainties

From Jon Giorgini, 2014 Feb 5:

New optical has been reported the last couple days. Now with 
108 measurements Jan 23 - Feb 04, 2014 BW32 orbit solution #13
was computed and predicts updated on aardvark.

Formal 3-sigma X-band uncertainties for s13 at one hour
intervals for the DSS-14 track:

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN  POS_3sigma   DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2014-Feb-06 01:00       2.862       130.09       0.003857
 2014-Feb-06 02:00       2.911       130.50       0.003911
 2014-Feb-06 03:00       2.957       130.92       0.003965
 2014-Feb-06 04:00       2.996       131.33       0.004020
 2014-Feb-06 05:00       3.028       131.73       0.004075

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

From Horizons, 2014 Feb 04: Solution 11 (# obs = 105, 11 days)

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_S_3sig  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2014-Feb-03 00:00 *m  131.00848  51.09873 0.00546266725231      0.882       24.44       88.82       0.002519
 2014-Feb-04 00:00 *m   45.82691  58.47154 0.00495597361178      2.876       15.63       56.79       0.002331
 2014-Feb-05 00:00 *m   10.79978  34.98677 0.00726929259340      4.688       39.37      143.09       0.003410
 2014-Feb-06 00:00 *m    2.12982  22.51727 0.01070181084535      5.224       46.59      169.31       0.004997
 2014-Feb-07 00:00 *m  358.40938  16.13224 0.01447553806314      5.437       49.19      178.79       0.006745
 2014-Feb-08 00:00 *m  356.34131  12.37818 0.01838210631436      5.557       50.40      183.17       0.008558
 2014-Feb-09 00:00 *m  355.01417   9.92555 0.02235446521297      5.636       51.08      185.64       0.010404
 2014-Feb-10 00:00 *m  354.07967   8.19807 0.02636664595023      5.695       51.53      187.27       0.012269

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

From Jon Giorgini, 2014 Jan 31:

Based on 42 optical measurements (Jan 23-30), 2014 BW32 orbit
solution #5 was estimated and OSOD set-up on aardvark.

Formal 3-sigma X-band uncertainties for s5:

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN  POS_3sigma   DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2014-Feb-03 00:00     114.332       315.93       0.008504
 2014-Feb-04 00:00     186.696       434.83       0.007872
 2014-Feb-05 00:00     112.327       527.42       0.012130
 2014-Feb-06 00:00      66.062       581.39       0.017683
 2014-Feb-07 00:00      45.956       605.89       0.023602

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

From Horizons, 2014 Jan 30, Solution 3, # obs = 42 (7 days):

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_S_3sig  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2014-Jan-30 00:00 *m  163.46784  12.44628 0.01970086163728      0.863      155.57      565.42       0.028064
 2014-Jan-31 00:00 *m  161.75490  15.65598 0.01574124741661      2.368      152.29      553.51       0.022516
 2014-Feb-01 00:00 *m  158.75238  20.95105 0.01189076260289      7.506      145.71      529.58       0.017161
 2014-Feb-02 00:00 *m  152.31514  30.86809 0.00829341830523     24.535      129.26      469.79       0.012217
 2014-Feb-03 00:00 *m  131.02110  51.09116 0.00546368850852     82.349       85.01      308.96       0.008271 * scheduled
 2014-Feb-04 00:00 *m   45.85695  58.48065 0.00495594058323    138.178       83.22      302.46       0.007205
 2014-Feb-05 00:00 *m   10.80721  34.99596 0.00726837061154     86.570      121.62      442.03       0.010484
 2014-Feb-06 00:00 *m    2.13323  22.52287 0.01070049983903     53.612      141.87      515.62       0.015323 * scheduled
 2014-Feb-07 00:00 *m  358.41152  16.13606 0.01447400685782     39.269      149.97      545.06       0.020632 
 2014-Feb-08 00:00 *m  356.34287  12.38105 0.01838041300602     32.347      153.79      558.94       0.026143
 2014-Feb-09 00:00 *m  355.01541   9.92786 0.02235263400690     28.600      155.94      566.75       0.031761
 2014-Feb-10 00:00 *m  354.08072   8.20002 0.02636468836276     26.377      157.36      571.90       0.037445

Significant improvement between solutions 2 and 3, but we still need more astrometry.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

From Horizons, 2014 Jan 29, Solution 2, # obs: 24 (6 days)

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_S_3sig  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2014-Jan-30 00:00 *m  163.46778  12.44650 0.01970901969969      2.219      275.72     1002.10       0.052790
 2014-Jan-31 00:00 *m  161.75467  15.65657 0.01574734013872      7.701      270.07      981.55       0.043039
 2014-Feb-01 00:00 *m  158.75164  20.95261 0.01189486649200     23.655      259.33      942.54       0.033647
 2014-Feb-02 00:00 *m  152.31233  30.87251 0.00829574673721     74.315      235.58      856.21       0.024906
 2014-Feb-03 00:00 *m  131.00381  51.10234 0.00546503788043    242.089      198.06      719.84       0.017212  
 2014-Feb-04 00:00 *m   45.81660  58.46926 0.00495854733315    398.133      195.57      710.80       0.012847
 2014-Feb-05 00:00 *m   10.79777  34.98529 0.00727330663469    245.925      201.33      731.72       0.017594
 2014-Feb-06 00:00 *m    2.12926  22.51722 0.01070762534628    149.422      243.36      884.48       0.025756  
 2014-Feb-07 00:00 *m  358.40930  16.13282 0.01448327008512    106.470      261.61      950.82       0.034907
 2014-Feb-08 00:00 *m  356.34145  12.37907 0.01839180743919     84.953      270.09      981.63       0.044507
 2014-Feb-09 00:00 *m  355.01444   9.92662 0.02236616342815     72.793      274.73      998.48       0.054348
 2014-Feb-10 00:00 *m  354.08003   8.19926 0.02638035926443     65.258      277.67     1009.17       0.064338

===================================================================

Apparent Magnitudes, Solar Elongations, Lunar Elongations, and Lunar Illumination:

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta  APmag    S-O-T /r  T-O-M/Illu%
 2014-Jan-30 00:00     163.41788  12.53548 0.01968458322717  18.94 149.6948 /L  136.1/  1.5
 2014-Jan-31 00:00     161.68593  15.77196 0.01572545790123  18.35 152.9393 /L  152.4/  0.2
 2014-Feb-01 00:00     158.64729  21.11218 0.01187726991868  17.62 156.8748 /L  163.5/  2.0
 2014-Feb-02 00:00     152.12113  31.10865 0.00828659845806  16.76 159.2650 /L  150.5/  6.6
 2014-Feb-03 00:00     130.47436  51.38155 0.00547516686525  16.28 144.8887 /T  114.6/ 13.6
 2014-Feb-04 00:00      45.45255  58.31768 0.00499551525889  17.32 102.7422 /T   59.2/ 22.2
 2014-Feb-05 00:00      10.84041  34.98809 0.00731566858460  19.53  71.1203 /T   27.1/ 31.8
 2014-Feb-06 00:00       2.18802  22.57035 0.01074777545033    21.  56.6227 /T   32.8/ 41.9
 2014-Feb-07 00:00     358.46217  16.19055 0.01452115564123    23.  48.9621 /T   47.8/ 52.1
 2014-Feb-08 00:00     356.38783  12.43266 0.01842793928222    24.  44.1118 /T   62.5/ 61.8
 2014-Feb-09 00:00     355.05554   9.97489 0.02240091912372    25.  40.6185 /T   76.3/ 70.9
 2014-Feb-10 00:00     354.11696   8.24261 0.02641398681991    25.  37.8686 /T   89.6/ 79.1

Setups



We don't know anything about the spin state of 2004 BW32, but if it's similar
to other tiny asteroids, it could have a rapid rotation period in the realm of
only ten minutes.  If so, then the bandwidth could be roughly 10 Hz. 

CW setup:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TX polarization           RCP
RCV polarization          LCP & RCP
Frequency hops:           no hops (+0.5 kHz offset)                  
Bandwidth:                4000 Hz 
Sampling interval:        2500 x 0.1 usec 
PFS FFT:                  4000 for 1.0 Hz res 

Ranging setups:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-usec
baud             10 usec
code            127
PRP            1270 usec
FFT             128   
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       787 Hz   
resolution      6.15 Hz
TXOFF          +100Hz  (echo in bin 64+16=80)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-usec 
baud             11 usec
code            127
PRP            1397 usec
FFT             128  
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       716 Hz   
resolution      5.6 Hz
TXOFF          +100 Hz  (echo in bin 64+18=82) 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1-usec 
baud            1 usec
code            127
FFT             512
ncoh             128
bandwidth        61.3 Hz   
resolution       0.12 Hz
TXOFF           +8 Hz -> echo would be centered at 256 + 67=323
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.25-usec ranging 
baud            0.25 usec
code            255
FFT             128
ncoh             16
bandwidth       980  Hz     
resolution       7.7 Hz
TXOFF          +80 Hz -> echo would be centered at 64 + 10 = 74
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.125-usec ranging 
baud            0.125 usec
code            255
FFT             128
ncoh             32
bandwidth       980  Hz     
resolution       7.7 Hz
TXOFF          +80 Hz -> echo would be centered at 64 + 10 = 74


Instructions

NOTE: Data should be moved to the appropriate subdirectories in aardvark:/export/data0/2014BW32/raw/

POINTING:

  OSOD and predicts are aardvark:

Monostatic with the new waveform generator:
/export/data3/osod/ops/2014ba3/PRDX.OUT.14v-14-14.s??
                              /PUNCH.OUT.14v-14-14.s??
                              /EPH.OUT.s??

...We also need bistatic DSS14-DSS13 predicts...


POINTING 
                                                       TX Offsets    
Date (UTC)   DOY  hhmmss    RA        Dec      Macro   LHA     Dec  RTT    OSOD

... to be added later ...

Transmit offsets are given in millidegrees.  


PRDX.OUT.14f-14-14.s?? ...not available yet...

2014 BW32 GOLDSTONE MASTERLOG

============================================================================== Receive TX Setup hops dwell code ncoh FFT runs start -stop OSOD offset Poln Notes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Lance A. M. Benner | PHONE: (818) 354-7412 Mail Stop 183-610 | FAX: (818) 393-4445 Jet Propulsion Laboratory | email: lance.benner@jpl.nasa.gov California Institute of Technology | Plan: To live long and prosper Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2014BW32/2014BW32_planning.html

Asteroid Radar Astronomy
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